CABO VERDE - The Struggle for Liberation
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Geschrieben von Luigi Fogo am 04. Juli 2002 21:56:43:
Morgen in Cabo Verde wird Gefeiert, vor 27 Jahre wuerde Cabo Verde Frei...
The Struggle for Liberation
"They [the famines of the 1940's] provoked a new trend of thought. There had to be a change, there had to be a different future. Many emigrated; not just for jobs but in the search for a way ahead. Some of us went to Portugal, others to Angola, several to Bissau. Yet all of us went with the same notion, the idea of finding a different way ahead." - Aristides Pereira
• Summer, 1949 - Series of radio talks by Amilcar Cabral in Praia.
• 1953-54 - Cabral carries out agricultural census in Guinea for the Portuguese Ministry of Overseas Territories.
• 9/19/1956 - Founding of the PAIGC.
• 8/3/59 - Pidgiguiti massacre.
• 12/60-9/61 - PAIGC conducts agitation program calling for peaceful end to colonial rule.
• 4/61 - Creation of CONCP.
• 3/62 - Abortive PAIGC attack on Praia.
• 6-7/62 - Acts of sabotage in Guinea Bissau.
• 1/63 - PAIGC initiates full-blown military campaign.
• 1/23/63 - PAIGC attacks Portuguese fort at Tite.
• 7/63 - New front opened in Northern Guinea Bissau.
• 2/64 - First Party Congress of the PAIGC takes place in the liberated zones at Cassaca. The PAIGC's political and military forces are reassessed and restructured.
• 4/64 - Major engagement at Como Island.
• 11/64 - FARP units open the eastern front. Fighting intensifies on all three fronts - North, South, and East.
• 1967 - OAU gives its full support to PAIGC.
• 2/19/68 - PAIGC attack on Bissalanca Airport, center of Portuguese Air Force operations..
• 2/69 - PAIGC takes Medina Boe.
• 2/69 - Gen. Antonio de Spínola arrives in Guinea
• 1969 - Assassination of FRELIMO President Eduardo Mondlane.
• 7/1/70 - Cabral and leaders of FRELIMO and MPLA given audience with Pope.
• 7/27/70 - Death of Salazar.
• 11/22/70 - Portuguese invade Conakry.
• 1971 - PAIGC attacks on Farim, Bafata, and Bissau.
• 1972 - UN Mission visits liberated zones.
• Nov. 2, 1972 - UN General Assembly recognizes the "legitimacy of armed resistance in Africa against Portugal."
• 1/20/73 - Assassination of Amilcar Cabral.
• 3/73 - PAIGC forces begin employment of surface-to-air missles.
• 5/73 - Siege and fall of the major Portuguese fort of Guiledge.
• 7/18-22/73 - Second PAIGC Congress held at Medina Boe. Aristides Pereira elected new secretary-general. Luis Cabral becomes deputy secretary-general.
• 8/21/73 - First secret meeting of the Portuguese revolutionary captains, soon to be transformed into the Armed Forces Movement (MFA), takes place in Bissau.
• 9/9/73 - An underground meeting of the revolutionary captains takes place in Monte Sobral (Alcáćovas), Portugal. The MFA (Movimento das Forćas Armadas [Armed Forces Movement]) is founded.
• 11/2/73 - Gen. Spínola relieved as commander of the war.
• 2/12/74 - Garrison at Copa falls after a 40-day siege.
• 4/25/74 - MFA ends facism in Portugal.- The unfolding of the coup:
"The struggle of the liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies had decisively influenced the rise of the Armed Forces Movement, and contributed much to the advancement of the ideas of political justice among young Portuguese officers, notably the captains, on the need to end the fascist-colonialist dictatorship and the colonial wars, thus giving way to the rights of the colonized to self-determination and independence." - General Vasco Gonćalves
• 5/1/74 - Political prisoners released from Tarrafal.
• 8/28/74 - PAICG delegation arrives in Sao Vicente to establish headquarters.
• 9/14/74 - Portugal recognizes independence of Guinea Bissau.
• 9/29/74 - General strike in Cape Verde creates tensions in Lisbon.
• 9/30/74 - Spinola marginalized by MFA majority.
• 11/1/74 - Joint PAIGC-MFA denunciation of Spinola and endorsement of PAIGC.
• 12/9/74 - PAIGC militants sieze Sčo Vicente's pro-colonial Radio Barlavento.
• 12/19/74 - Agreement signed in Lisbon recognizing the right of the Cape Verdian people to independence if they so choose it.
• 5/11/75 - Spinola stages unsuccessful coup against MFA.
"The process of decolonization in the minds of the Armed Forced Movement was neither a linear development nor a smooth one. On the contrary, it was the target after 25 April of an acute conflict between two basic political lines.
One of these was the libertarian, anti-neocolonialist and anti-imperialist trend of the progressive sectors of the AFM. The other trend was neocolonialist, representing Rightist sectors of the AFM and most of the officers and sergeants, with their leader being the President of the Republic, General Spinola. - General Vasco Gonćalves
• 6/20-26/75 - PAIGC delegation meets with Portuguse government representatives in Cascais, Portugal.
• 6/30/75 - First Capeverdean elections held to choose representatives to People's National Assembly. Under UN supervision, 92% of votes cast go to PAIGC.
• 7/5/75 - Cape Verde Independence proclaimed.
A brief chronology of post-independence events of significance.
• 10/30/75 - Controversial granting of powers to DiNaS (Direcćčo Nacional de Seguranća.)
• 12/75 - Friendship accords signed with Angola.
• 9/5/80 - Constitution of Cape Verde adopted.
• 11/80 - Guinea-Bissau President Luís Cabral overthrown, seriously eroding Cape Verde - Guinea-Bissau unity.
• 1/19/81 - Formation of the PAICV (African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde).
• 6/82 - Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau restore diplomatic relations at Maputo summit.
• 1/13/91 - MpD dominates first multi-party national elections.
• 7/24/92 - New Cape Verdean flag adopted.
• 12/95 - MpD dominates second multi-party national elections.