Re: Moegliche Langusten-Ueberfischung-FISHING FOR A LIVING....
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Geschrieben von LuigiFogo am 22. Oktober 2001 22:23:54:
Als Antwort auf: Moegliche Langusten-Ueberfischung geschrieben von Beatrice am 20. Oktober 2001 18:04:55:
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.FISHING FOR A LIVING*
Raymond A. Almeida
Lobster divers remember the names of the Portuguese, Spanish, and French buyers and the tactics some have employed to overheat local prices in order to gain access to as much of the weekly catch as possible. Today the local price of lobster is beyond the reach of most Cape Verdeans. Manipulations by some foreign buyers and their local agents have caused friction between fishermen and destabilization of the trust and cooperation so essential to the survival of fishing villages. A few local divers observe that even the most unscrupulous of these foreign buyers easily manage to get the ear of government officials in Praia or take a meal at a hotel with a customs agent -- things that most fishermen have no expectation of ever doing.
As a result of over-fishing the stocks of all species of lobster have dropped dramatically in recent years. Exports of both cold water spiny lobster varieties, commonly called lagosta rosa, and its shallow water cousin, lagosta verde, grew from 47 metric tons in 1985 to 99 metric tons in 1992, generating the equivalent of almost one million U.S. dollars in revenue, or roughly 10% of Cape Verde's total export earnings. Deep water traps are set for the higher priced lagosta rosa while divers capture the lagosta verde with their hands and a hooked metal rod.
Today there's a new breed of Cape Verdean diver, the tourism hotel diver. A few lobster divers like Tiston**, Richard, Beto and Fernando di Nha Julieta can look forward to eight-hour work days on clean boats, in colorful wet suits with modern equipment and photos and after-dive cocktails around the hotel pools with French, German, and other international tourists. But if the tourists don't come, the hotels lay them off from work. And off come the fancy wet suits and cocktail party manners, and what emerges is a traditional lobster diver, ready to set the professional diving decompression tables and regulations aside and risk life and limb in pursuit of the lobster he knows will put money in his pocket and food on his family's table.
The future of artisanal fishing is among the many challenges Cape Verde confronts as it begins to respond to international commercial forces and make plans for industrialization. Cape Verdean fisheries meetings almost always include interested parties representing the fishing policy establishment in Praia and their foreign advisors, commercial boat owners' groups from Sao Vicente and Praia, tuna cannery operators, the lobster exporters, and sometimes even representatives of Spanish, Japanese, or other international industrial fishing companies. Seldom has there been participation by artisanal fishermen. At most of these meetings the dialogue invariably moves on to the problems of the commercial boats, bank financing issues, exports, and a market-driven discussion of fisheries development. It is fair to ask, Who speaks for the artisanal fishing communities?
The World Bank and other international lending institutions as well as most bilateral aid donors have arrived very late to an appreciation of the necessity to protect culture and civil society as integral parts of all comprehensive economic development planning. Many countries have learned that economic development "at all costs" is neither economic, nor is it necessarily development. Witness the Canary Islands with its lucrative banking, fishing, tourism, and business development. The people there enjoy a comparatively high standard of living. But unfortunately, all of the economic development which they have achieved in recent decades has been purchased at a very high price. Certainly, there are "folkloric" restaurants with waiters dressed in the stylized fashion of Spain's Andalusia or the far-off Caribbean, even Germany's Black Forest. Plastic, sterile international tourism is everywhere. One would be hard pressed to find any evidence of indigenous Canarian culture in the Canary Islands.
Cape Verdean planners must remain steadfast in their determination to implement long-range programs to achieve sustainable economic development which does not cause major cultural dislocation. These planners need to know that Cape Verdean diaspora communities and the friends of Cape Verde around the world are deeply concerned that sustainable development be achieved without disrupting the living cultures of the Islands.
Unless economic planning includes financial incentives and other support services for fishing families which enable and encourage them to stay in fishing, the cultural resources oflanded. Government should insist upon greater transparency in the dealings of foreign buyers in Cape Verde. Unless Cape Verde is willing to make this investment now, artisanal fishermen will not be able to keep their culture alive.
Both commercial fishing and artisanal fishing have roles to play in the economic future of the country. But like apples and oranges, they can not be compared one to another. Nor should they be set one against each other to bid for government'sattention. No amount of developmentlanded. Government should insist upon greater transparency in the dealings of foreign buyers in Cape Verde. Unless Cape Verde is willing to make this investment now, artisanal fishermen will not be able to keep their culture alive.
Both commercial fishing and artisanal fishing have roles to play in the economic future of the country. But like apples and oranges, they can not be compared one to another. Nor should they be set one against each other to bid for government'sattention. No amount of development in the industrial fishing sector can replace what Cape Verde stands to lose if great care is not taken to undergird and insure the survival of the culture of artisanal fishing communities. These communities are reliable producers of food. They have strong families and are a focal point for tourism development. We hope more Cape Verdeans will come to regard artisanal fishing as the "art" of fishing for a living; an act of bravery and culture and a vital contributor to the economic "bottom line" of the country. The families and the culture of these communities must be kept off the auction block of "economic development".
*(6 January 1996) Opinions expressed are those of the author and do not reflect official Cape Verdean government policy. Thanks to Lineu Miranda, Lela Rodrigues and Teof Figueiredo for opening my eyes to the realities of Cabo Verde. Thanks to Maria Luisa Ramos and my many friends in Santa Maria, Ilha do Sal who helped me to understand how the forces of nature, governments and culture impact on the lives of Cabo Verde's fishing families.
** In mid-December, 1995, Eduardo "Tiston" DePina died of a heart attack while spear fishing on a reef near Farol on his day off from his hotel scuba diving tourism job. (RIP).
* Elements for an Environmental Strategy. World Bank Report #12208.
* Fisheries in Cape Verde. IDAF Newsletter 1993/09/01
* Small islands and fishing: caught in a global squeeze
* Cape Verde Fishery Profile
* CV Fisheries Planning Resources
Statistics and Estimates
From the Cape Verdean Ministry of Fisheries. As soon as current data becomes available it will be posted on the Home Page.
* Total Area - 4030 km2
* Coastline - 2000 km
* Shelf Area - 10,150 km2
Industrial Fleet (1990):
* Number of vessels: 75
* Gross registered tonnage: 2800
* Apparent Production: 2,400 metric tons
Artisanal Fleet and Production (1990):
* Number of vessels: 1330
* Apparent Tonnage: 2700 metric tons
* Motorized Vessels: 45.9%
Fisheries Potential (metric tons):
* Demersal fish - 6,300
* Large Pellagics - 24,000
* Small Pellagics - 11,000